广州翻译公司--助力英语考研

翻译资讯    发布时间:2018/11/14 17:36:36

乐文广州翻译公司获悉,研究生入学考试中,常常泛起一些习惯用法和短语。很多考生由于对此不知道或不敏感,以至对原文的理解产生偏差,甚至产生完全错误的理解,所以,牵涉到习惯用法和短语的部门考生往往失分严峻。

 

我们有必要把握一些常常在考研题中泛起的习惯用法和短语。

 

现将考研题中常常泛起的习惯用法归纳如下:

 

(1)more A than B, less B than Anot so much B as/but A意思相同,用法相似,都可理解为"与其说是B,还不如说是A"

 

这些短语的常见意义为"比…更",如:There are more cars on the roads in summer than in winter。夏天公路上的车比冬天多。但是这个释义并不适合所有的场合。在良多情况下,这些句型中AB表示的是不同种类的比较,而且是表示在比较的基础上的一种选择关系,应该译为"与其说…还不如说"。如:Teaching can be more like guiding and assisting than forcing information into a supposedly empty head

 

译文:教授教养与其说是把知识灌注贯注到假定为一片空缺的头脑中,还不如说是对其进行引导和匡助。(本句可理解为将"知识灌注贯注"的行为与"引导和匡助"的行为进行对比,说明教授教养选择的是后一种行为。故译为"与其说…还不如说"。留意译文与原文的语序相反。)

 

It remains our view that a definition would be more likely to interfere with than to assist the competent organs of the United Nations to take quick and effective action to ensure the maintenance of peace

 

译文:我们仍旧以为,一项定义与其说是有助于,还不如说是有碍于联合国各个主管机构采取迅速而有效的步履确保和平。

 

It was a curious exchange,less a debate than a quarrel between two aggressive men, each of them determined to impress the audience as more peaceful than the other

 

译文:这是一次奇妙的交谈,与其说是两个好斗的人之间的一场辩论,还不如说是一次吵嘴,双方都竭力想使听众觉得自己比对方更爱和平。

 

(2)no more...thannot any more than表示类比,意思是"和…一样都不""不比…更"

 

no more...thannot any more不能简朴地看做more...than 的否定形式。这一结果可能是带有一定的感情色彩的否定形式,也可能是一种较特殊的类比形式。

 

第一种情况:表示同类否定比较,可译为"不比…更""都…同样不"

 

The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain

 

译文:心脏和胃一样无智力可言,由于它们都是由大脑控制的。

 

The food on the ship was no better than on any other ship on which Billy had sailed

 

译文:这条船上的(供给的)食物和比利工作过的其他船上的食物一样低劣。

 

第二种情况:表示两者的比较关系,可译为"正如…不,…也不"

 

There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, any more than they can limit how much water you drink

 

译文:他们没有理由限制你服用多少维生素,正像他们不能限制你喝多少水一样。(这句话实际上是前后两部门进行比较的一种用法)

 

No one can hold back the tide of revolution any more than a man with a broom can hold a flood that has burst the dam

 

译文:任何人都无法阻挡革命洪流,正如一个人不能拿着扫帚挡住决堤的洪水一样。

 

The archaeologists' efforts are not directed at proving the correctness of the Bible any more than belief in God can be scientifically demonstrated

 

译文:考古学家的努力并不是要"验证"圣经的准确性,正如信奉上帝不能从科学上证实一样。

 

(3)rather than良多情况下是一个表示否定的词组,译成"而不是"

 

He rather than you is responsible for the loss

 

译文:损失由他而不是你负责。

 

Rather than a punishment or a burden, work is the opportunity to realize one's potential

 

译文:工作不是惩罚,也不是负担,工作为个人潜力的施展提供机会。

 

(4)only too...to相称于very...to表示"非常…""很…"

 

I shall be only too pleased to help him

 

译文:替他帮忙我长短常兴奋的。

 

(5)cannot...too.。。的意思是"不管怎么也不会过分"not表示的否定也可用scarcely这样的半否定词代替,意思相似。

 

A book may be compared to your neighbour; if it be good, it cannot last too long; if bad, you cannot get rid of it too early

 

译文:一本书比如你的邻居;假如是好书,读书的时间再长也不嫌长;假如不是好书,你越早丢开它越好。

 

One can scarcely pay too high a price for liberty

 

译文:为自由人们付出多大的代价都不外分。

 

(6)肯定句中other than 表示 different fromexcept,"不同于,除了";在否定句中other than相称于except"除了"

 

Plants which refine crude ores are often located in countries other than those in which the crude ores are mined

 

译文:提炼矿石的厂房通常不设在采矿石的国家,而设在其他国家。

 

Holidays other than those in this brochure do not have free places for children

 

译文:小册子上没写的节假日里小孩不免费。

 

We missed the last bus so there was no choice other than to walk home

 

译文:我们错过了最后一班公共汽车,所以除了步行回家外别无选择。

助力英语考研

(7)It is not that...but that.。。的意思是"这不是说,而是说",或"原因不是…,而是…"

 

It is not that the scales in the one case, and the balance in the other, differ in the principles of their construction or manner of working; but that the latter is a much finer apparatus and of course much more accurate in its measurement than the former.     译文:这并不是说面包师或卖肉者所用的磅秤和化学家所用的天平在构造原理或工作方式上存在差别,而是说与前者比拟,后者是一种更精密得多的装置,因而在计量上必定正确得多。

 

(8)Cannot...too"再…也不外分""应该…",参见技巧中的"正义反译和反义正译"部门。

 

You cannot be too careful in this matter

 

译文:在此事上你再仔细也不外分。

 

We cannot estimate the value of modern science too much

 

译文:对现代科学的价值再正视也不外分。

 

(9)much less, still less 用于否定句中,表示一种追加的否定,意思为"更不用说、更不要说"。类似的说法还有to say nothing of, not to speak of, not to mention, let alone,它们的意思也是"更不用说",但是肯定句和否定句都可以用。

 

He knows little of mathematics, and still less of chemistry

 

译文:他几乎不懂数学,更不用说化学了。

 

In old China, there was hardly any machine-building industry, to say nothing of an electronic industry

 

译文:在旧中国,几乎没有机器制造业,更不用说电子产业了。

 

Some people never read a newspaper,let alone a book

 

译文:有些人从未读过报纸,更不用平话本了。

 

He is the most intelligent, not to mention handsome, people I know

 

译文:他是我知道的最智慧的人之一,而且他还很英俊。

 

(10)the last + 名词+不定式,或the last +名词+定语从句,意思是"…最不可能的,最不愿意的"

 

You are the last person I want to see

 

译文:你是我最不愿意见的人。

 

He would be the last person to go along with the proposal

 

译文:他将是最不可能同意这项提议的人。

 

Breach of promise is the last thing that he is likely to commit

 

译文:违约的事情他是毫不会干的。/他决不至于干出违约的事情。

 

(11)only to+动词"结果却…",表示出乎意料的一种结果。

 

They don't have to pay for expensive seats at the theatre, the cinema or the opera, only to discover, perhaps, that the show is disappointing

 

译文:他们不必花钱去剧院、片子院或歌剧院买价格昂贵的票,结果却发现,所演节目令人绝望。

 

I went to pay a visit to my teacher only to find that the door was locked

 

译文:我去造访老师,结果却发现大门被锁上了。

 

(12)no...but"没有…不""任何…都"

 

There is no man but has faults

 

译文:没有人没有错误。/人皆有错误。

 

but在此是一否定关系代词,既代替前面的名词,又引出从句,而且具有否定意义,可理解为who...not, that...not, which...not。原句相称于There is no man who does not have faults

 

(13)would rather...than"宁愿…","与其…不如"

 

I would rather die with my head high, with indestructible faith and profound belief in the destiny of our country, than live in humility and renounce the principles which are sacred to me

 

译文:我宁愿昂着头,怀着不动摇的信念,抱着对祖国前途的真切决心信念而死,也不愿在屈从之下背弃神圣的原则而生。(注:would rather 在某些英语中写成had rather)

 

(14)not nearly 相差很远,远远少于。

 

The food supply will not increase nearly enough to match this, which means that we are heading into a crisis in the matter of producing and marketing food

 

译文:粮食供给将远远比不上人口的增长,这意味着我们在粮食出产和购销两方面正陷入危机。

 

(15)no less than简直是,其实是; no less... than不但…而且。

 

It is no less than blackmail to ask such a price for a mere vase

 

译文:区区一花瓶索要如斯高价,简直是敲诈。

 

There were no less than one thousand people at the meeting

 

译文:到会的不少于1 000人。(夸大人良多。比较There were not less than one thousand people at the meeting。到会的至少有1 000人。只说"不少于",而不夸大人多人少)

 

China insists always on the need for self-reliance, no less in economic policies than in making revolution

 

译文:中国始终坚持独立自主,不但在进行革命方面,而且在经济政策方面亦如斯。(留意:no less...than连接两个并列的成分,夸大的重心在前面,因此汉译时被夸大的部门要放在"而且"之后)

 

(16)anything but 根本不;all but 几乎,差一点;but forbut that + 从句"要不是"

 

Alone in a deserted house, he was so busy with his research work that he felt anything but lonely

 

译文:固然他单唯一人待在这所空寂的屋子里,但是他埋头于工作研究,所以一点也没有感到孤傲。

 

(anything but意思是not at all, but做介词,意为except)

 

The method of scientific investigation is nothing but the expression of the necessary mode of working of the human mind; it is simply the mode by which all phenomena are reasoned about and given precise and exact explanation

 

译文:科学研究的方式不外是人类思维流动的必要表达方式,也就是对一切现象进行思考并给予正确而严谨的解释的表达方式。

 

It was all but impossible to climb back into the boat

 

译文:要再回到船上已几乎不可能了。(all but相称于nearly, almost)

 

But for the rain we would have had a nice holiday

 

译文:要不是由于下雨,我们的假日一定过得很舒服。

 

But that you had seen me in the water, I would have drowned

 

译文:要不是你看见我掉在水里,我早就淹死了。

 

——选自:乐文广州翻译公司

 

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